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Wake Forest School of Medicine


Wake Forest School of Medicine (WFSM) occupies a firm position among the best medical schools in the United States. The desire to teach excellence in clinical medicine, promote strong clinical and basic research, render exemplary patient care, and stress service to the community has continued as an integral part of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center, a leading research and teaching hospital.




  • Upper Extremity Kinematic Model ( Software )

    The project holds all the files necessary for a SIMM-based kinematic musculoskeletal model of the human upper-extremity which can also be easily imported and used in OpenSIM. In order to respect the time and effort put in by the original developers please carefully read accompanying publications and cite appropriate references in future work. The links to the left contain all the files (Downloads) and documentation (Documents) related to the model. Please cite the following paper: - Holzbaur KR, Murray WM, Delp SL.: A model of the upper extremity for simulating musculoskeletal surgery and analyzing neuromuscular control., Ann Biomed Eng. 2005 Jun 33(6):829-40. (2005)

    About the model: This model of the upper extremity includes 15 degrees of freedom representing the shoulder, elbow, forearm, wrist, thumb, and index finger, and 50 muscle compartments crossing these joints. The kinematics of each joint and the force-generating parameters for each muscle were derived from experimental data. The model estimates the muscletendon lengths and moment arms for each of the muscles over a wide range of postures. Given a pattern of muscle activations, the model also estimates muscle forces and joint moments. The moment arms and maximum moment generating capacity of each muscle group (e.g., elbow flexors) were compared to experimental data to assess the accuracy of the model. These comparisons showed that moment arms and joint moments estimated using the model captured important features of upper extremity geometry and mechanics. The model also revealed coupling between joints, such as increased passive finger flexion moment with wrist extension.

    Keywords: kinematic model, muscle architecture parameters, muscle moment arms, upper limb

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Last updated: 2013-09-25T12:41:21.826-04:00

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